Making San Francisco Sourdough Bread
If you want to be successful at activating and baking with the San Francisco sourdough starter, the most important thing is for you to understand how it works.
If you understand a little more about what’s happening in that bowl of flour and water and starter, you will easily be able to control what your SF starter does—and when. That knowledge is the key to making your activation and breadmaking processes much easier.
How the San Francisco Sourdough Starter Works
The starter you have received is composed of a tiny amount of organic flour which holds two living organisms—a wild yeast and a friendly bacteria. The wild yeast gives off CO2 as a result of its metabolism which is what causes your bread to rise. The activity of the wild yeast also changes the crumb and crust of your bread. The bacteria gives your bread its wonderful classic San Francisco flavor and fragrance.
Within just a short time after you mix the dried starter with water and flour, the yeast begins to come out of hibernation. The warmer your kitchen is, the faster this will happen. Conversely, if your kitchen is on the cool side, the yeast will take more time to become active. Once the yeast begins to wake up, it immediately starts to consume the flour and water mixture—this is its food.
As soon as the yeast organisms start eating the food you gave them, the mixture begins to thicken and become more cohesive and less runny. Next, they begin to reproduce themselves—they make babies—lots of them. This all happens very quickly and the warmer it is, the faster it happens.
These babies immediately begin to eat and make more babies—and so on and so on! Very soon you have multiple generations of yeast critters eating the food you have given them and making more babies. Since the number of hungry yeasties is increasing exponentially, the population of critters is becoming more and more dense. Pretty soon, you’ll have so many organisms that they will eat up all the food. When that happens, they begin to starve to death! As long as they have plenty of food, they will live and reproduce indefinitely.
But with the population of yeast organisms increasing so rapidly, the food you first gave them doesn’t last long. Any time that your sourdough starter is warmed to room temperatures, it needs to be watched carefully for signs that it needs more food.
Two of the signs that your critters are running out of food are the appearance of a light tan liquid in puddles on top of the mixture and/or a thinning of the viscosity of the mixture. If you see either of those situations happening, then immediately stir well and give it a feeding of flour and water. How much flour and water should you feed?
For every cup of starter or sponge you are feeding, you should feed 1½ cups each of flour and water. Before giving a feeding, if you like, you may reduce the volume of the starter/sponge in order to conserve flour and bowl space. For example, if you have a bowl full of starter that is hungry, you can discard all but one cup. Then give the one cup that remains a meal of 1½ cups each of flour and water. If you don’t reduce the volume, then you will need to feed your babies 1½ cups each of flour and water for every cup of starter.
The liquid that thins the mixture or that is forming on top is hooch—the by-product of the metabolism of the yeast. If you don’t feed it, the puddles will increase or, if you’ve stirred it, the consistency will get thinner because of the extra liquid formed, so that you will end up with a full layer of hooch—beige water—on top, or a very thin starter, either of which means that the yeast has begun to stop eating because its food is gone. Without food, the yeast will die.
This is the reason you will keep your starter in the refrigerator all the time—except when you take it out to bake with it. When your starter is refrigerated, its metabolism is slowed down by the cold and it begins to go into hibernation—still alive, but not reproducing and not needing food.
But soon, when you stir it, you will notice that the consistency of the starter mixture is becoming thicker and more cohesive. When that happens, you know for sure that the yeast is alive and dining on its favorite food, and beginning to reproduce. It’s important to stir so that you can see what is going on beneath the surface too.
At this point, as you stir you may be able to see some tiny bubbles on or beneath the surface of the mixture. As time goes on, though, you will be able to see more bubbles. This is the time to look at your starter and stir it at least every 30 to 45 minutes so you can observe the changes in activity. When you can see lots of bubbles throughout the mixture and even when you stir it, the bubbles don’t go away, then activation is finished!
You can now put one to three cups of this newly-activated starter into the fridge. Leave the cover loose until the mixture is chilled throughout, or the pressure inside the container will cause it to explode! After about 72 hours, you can tighten down the lid. This is your stash and it needs to stay refrigerated except when you take it out to use it.
After about 6-8 hours, if you detect no thickening of the consistency from the way it was when you first began and you see no bubbles, then you need to email me right away so I can send you a replacement. Heat is about the only thing that can kill the dry SF starter and it’s possible that it could get too hot during storage in Amazon’s warehouses or on a truck enroute to you. This is one of the reasons that I have the “no-questions-asked” free replacement guarantee. Another reason for that guarantee is because stuff happens—someone in the house turns on the oven to preheat when your budding starter is in there—and the starter is killed instantly. Even if it dies because someone made a mistake, I’ll still replace it free of charge because I know that we are all human and sometimes we goof!
It’s very important that you observe every phase of the activation
process, so check on your critters often. When you have seen your San
Francisco Sourdough Starter go through all of the stages of growth and
metabolism and reproduction, you will be equipped with the knowledge
and experience to make your first adventure in San Francisco sourdough
breadmaking much easier and less stressful for you—and
a lot more fun!!
The SF starter is so incredibly vigorous that it is easy to miss seeing its most active point by waiting too long to take a good look. Don’t make this mistake—look at your activating starter often—then the rest of the breadmaking process will be quite easy for you.
During this activation process, if you see puddles or a layer of beige-colored liquid on top—that’s hooch—which means that your starter has been actively consuming food and making new babies and is alive and well—and it also means that it is running low on food! Give it a feeding!!!!
Just about the only tech support questions I get are from people who need to feed their starter or sponge more. The more time that passes and the warmer the temperature is, the more food those babies need. When you see hooch on starter that is not in the fridge, you know for sure it needs FOOD!
This will probably only happen if you haven’t looked at and stirred your activating starter often. If this happens, don’t panic. Just stir what is in the bowl well and discard all but about 1 cup of the mixture. To that cup add 3 cups each of flour and water and mix well. This extra feeding will give all the yeast and bacteria critters enough food to start eating and making babies again.
Care and Feeding of Refrigerated Starter
I keep mine in the glass wire-bail jar that’s on my website. After it has been refrigerated for a while, it’s entirely normal to see a layer of beige-colored liquid—hooch—on top of your stash because it was still eating and growing when you put it in the fridge.
To prevent mold from forming inside your stash container, make sure that the sides and edges of your container are free of drips on the sides and around the top. The SF starter repels mold naturally, but the small drips and dabs dry quickly so they don’t have the acidity to prevent the mold from forming.
If you want more sour flavor in your bread, leave your stash in the fridge, unfed, for four to eight weeks—up to three or four months. Then take it out and use it. Some breadmakers keep two or three stash containers aging in the fridge because freshly fed starter isn’t as sour.
Making Bread--The Sponge
If you want to bake on Saturday morning, on Friday, take out ½ cup of your cold stash and put it in a bowl. Add 3 cups each of flour and water and cover it with plastic wrap and put it in the fridge.
At bedtime, take it out of the fridge and put it on your kitchen counter. You can leave the bowl on your kitchen counter unless your home is cooler than about 68°-70°. Then the easiest way to achieve the temperature you need is to adjust a rack in your oven to the middle, place your bowl of sponge on it and then put a loaf pan or casserole on the floor of the oven or the lowest shelf with about 3 cups of very hot water in it.If there are others in your household who might use the oven, put a sticky note on the oven door.
Leave it at room temperature (between 70° and 75°F) for about 8 hours. Then early on Saturday morning, you should have a very active sponge. If your room temp is in the 70’s, then 1/3 cup of stash mixed with 3/3 flour and water should become very active sponge within about 6 to 8 hours. If you overslept or got distracted and it doesn’t look very bubbly and/or the consistency has thinned out or you see little puddles of hooch on top, that means that it has gone past its most active point and isn’t active enough for the best sponge. But don’t panic. Just give your sponge a good feeding—at least two cups each of flour and water—and it will be back to its vigorous activity and ready to use to make your dough within an hour or so.
If your room is cooler, then
your sponge might not be quite fully active and you need
to wait and/or warm it up a little.
But if you started with live starter, your dough will eventually rise, so don’t throw it out if you don’t see it rising nicely within a couple of hours. Just be patient and it will behave like the popular “No-Knead Bread” recipes and might take up to 24 hours to rise as much as you need. But it will rise.
2-2½ cups of bread flour, or enough to make dough that’s still moist but not too sticky
2 teaspoons of salt, or more, up to 1-2 tablespoons if you like (I like a lot!)
Other Stuff You’ll Need
An oven-safe pan, casserole, or other container that will fit on the floor (or lowest shelf) of your oven
A baking sheet or loaf pan or whatever you want to bake your loaves of bread on or in
Some coarsely ground cornmeal—usually labeled stone ground
An egg mixed with 1 tablespoon of water for an egg wash
A pastry brush
A new, sharp single-edged razor blade or razor knife
Some oil and/or oil spray—like Pam
A tea towel or plastic wrap or both
Put the 2½-3 cups of your sponge (very bubbly active starter) into your mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, add about a cup and a half of the flour and mix well. At this point, stop for 30-90 minutes before adding more flour. This resting period, called autolysis by the bread geeks, allows the flour time to absorb the liquid and it is important.
Next mix and add flour and the salt until the dough gets too heavy for the paddle attachment. Change to the dough hook and continue adding flour until you have a fairly stiff dough—still moist but not too sticky. If it still seems too wet, add more flour a tablespoon at a time.
If you’re kneading by hand, ten minutes is probably the bare minimum time. I let my KitchenAid mixer do most of the kneading, but I usually finish with a minute or two by hand. Getting your hands on the dough is the only way to really understand its exact condition.
Now oil (or spray with Pam) a straight-sided dough rising bucket like on my website, if you have one. You can put a rubber band or a piece of masking tape around the bucket so you'll be able to tell when the dough has almost doubled. Or you can use a large bowl. Place the dough into your well-oiled container and then oil the top. Cover with a tea towel or plastic wrap and put it somewhere that it’s not drafty and is between about 70° and 80° F. The cooler range is fine—better in fact. It will take your dough longer to rise, but cooler rising temps also improve the flavor and texture of your bread. You can expect sourdoughs to rise more slowly than breads made with commercial yeasts.
At this point, you can cover your unrisen dough securely with plastic wrap that has been sprayed with Pam and put it into the refrigerator for 1 to 48 hours. This can help when you run out of time or want hot bread on a schedule and will always enhance the flavor of your finished bread.
When you’re ready to continue, just bring your dough to room temperature and allow it to finish its rise. You can refrigerate your dough for the first rise or for the second rise, after it has been shaped—or both. Just be sure to protect it from drying out in the fridge. The San Francisco Sourdough Starter is strong, flexible, and forgiving!
Look at your rising dough every 30 minutes or so and when it is about 1½ to 2 times its original size, you’re ready for the next step. Here's a good test: Push your finger into the dough about three-quarters of an inch. If you can see the dough spring back and fill the hole within a minute or two, then it isn't finished with its rise. If the indentation remains after a few minutes, you're ready to proceed to the next step.
Shaping and Baking
Now dump the dough out of the bowl and on to the counter. If you've greased your container well, it will slide right out. Divide the dough with the Plastic Dough Scraper you received with your starter into the portions you’ll use for your final shaping and ‘round’ each one, then let rest on the counter for about 15 minutes, covered with a damp tea towel or oiled plastic wrap to keep it from drying out.
Rounding is important and not many bread recipes discuss it. Here’s how it’s done: Pick up the piece of dough that will become a loaf of bread and gently pull the edges of the dough that were just cut underneath, making a round ball of dough so that you have sort of a ‘skin’ around the ball of dough and no cut edges are exposed. Pinch the bottom together.
Then put the ‘round’ on a clean dry counter with the bottom side down and put your hands on the sides of it. Push the round from alternate sides so that it goes around and around on the counter. You’ll see the skin tightening as you do this. Do it gently so you don’t break the skin. Alton Brown and his cohort, Shirley Corriher, both of whom I admire greatly, taught me about rounding and its importance.
While your dough is resting, prepare your baking sheet by sprinkling some coarsely ground corn meal where your rising bread will go. You can oil the pan or spray it first with Pam if you like, but the cornmeal adds an artisan-like texture to the bottom of your loaf of bread, so don't leave out that step. There’s a good cornmeal shaker (only $2.99) on my website that I keep full of cornmeal all the time. Actually, I have several—one for cornmeal, one for flour, one for powdered sugar, one for freshly- and coarsely-ground black pepper and one for kosher salt. They’re very handy.
If you want to bake your bread in loaf pans, now is the time to grease them well. You can also dust the bottoms with cornmeal. Be sure to check out the bread pans on my website. The Commercial Heavy-Duty Non-Stick Bread Pan on my website is the best loaf pan I’ve ever used. It heats evenly and is a kitchen staple that you’ll never have to replace. The Chicago Metallic Double and Triple French Bread Loaf Pans are great at shaping your sourdough bread into beautiful long baguettes without its rising out instead of up. I use them all the time.
Now that your dough has rested, it’s time to shape it. You can shape it any way you want. For a round or oval shape, pick up the dough and gently push the edges toward the underside until you get the shape you like. Then be sure to pinch the dough together firmly on the underside. If you’re making a round shape you can do the ‘rounding’ thing again. When you’re satisfied with the shape, place your dough on top of the cornmeal on your baking sheet or put it into the loaf pan.
If you have a problem with your free-form loaves spreading out more than rising up, please understand that this is something that happens to sourdough bread because the acidity of the starter weakens the gluten. Adding more flour to the dough will help as will making smaller loaves.
Cover your loaves with a tea towel or plastic wrap that has been sprayed with Pam. Now place your loaves in a warm (70°-80° F) non-drafty place again. This rising could take from 1½ to 3 hours—mine usually takes about two at my normal room temperatures in the high 70’s to the low 80’s, but it depends on the temperature of your room and the character of your dough. And again, keep in mind that cooler temperatures and longer rising times contribute to flavor and texture. You can do the same finger indentation test on the second rise that you did on the first.
For the oven: If you have a baking stone, put it into the oven before you preheat the oven. (If you don’t have a stone, don’t worry—your bread will still turn out great! But you can get a really good one on my website!) Also before preheating, place an oven-safe container on the floor of the oven full of water. If this won’t work, put a pan of water on the lowest shelf. Or, don’t use the pan of water and just spritz more with water while baking—whatever works for you and your oven!
Preheat the oven to 400° F for a minimum of 45 minutes—so that your baking stone, water, and oven are all fully and evenly heated—before putting your bread into the oven.
When your unbaked loaf has risen to about 2 times its original size and passes the finger indentation test, it’s time to bake. Your oven has been preheated to 400° F.
Beat an egg with a tablespoon of water and set it aside. Then take a very sharp single-edged razor blade (like the razor knife lame’ on my website), dip the blade in water before each cut, and slowly and gently make cuts in the top of your loaf—not straight down, but at an angle—about ¼ to ½ inch deep. To keep from collapsing your risen loaf, be careful—sometimes I have to go over a cut two or three times rather than press down too hard and risk deflating the dough. Practice helps a lot!
If your loaf is round, the traditional San Francisco way is to make two vertical slashes and two horizontal slashes in a tic-tac-toe pattern. If you have an oblong or oval, you can still slash it that way or just make one long cut along the length of the loaf—be creative. Back in the days when there were no home ovens—just one big one in the middle of the town that everyone used—each baker would create an original slashing pattern so that he could identify his loaves after baking.
When the slashes are finished, gently brush your loaf of bread with your egg wash. I like the egg wash, but many bakers use a cornstarch and water glaze. Try that one too and see which one suits you better!
Now get your spray bottle of plain water and spray your loaves with a fine mist. Put your pan into the oven directly on your baking stone. You already have a pan of water in the oven. As soon as you put your bread in the oven, put your hand sprayer on stream and spray the sides and floor of the oven with water. Do this three or four times during the first five or ten minutes of baking. Yeah, it’s high maintenance, but believe me, it’s worth it! (Warning!! Don't spray the light bulb or your hot baking stone—cold water will break either one because they have been preheated.)
Combined with the water evaporating from the pan, this spraying will reward you with a crisper crust on your finished loaf of bread. The egg or cornstarch wash makes it look pretty by adding a nice shine and making it brown nicely. If you like a soft crust, brushing with oil or butter before and after baking will do the trick.
After 10 minutes of baking, turn your oven down to 375° F. Your bread will take about 30 to 60 minutes to bake in total, depending upon your oven and the size of the loaves you have made.
The only way to really know when bread is done is to remove the bread from the oven, turn the loaf on its side or upside down, and insert an instant-read thermometer (like the one with the large dial on my website) into the center—from the side or the bottom, of course, so the hole won’t mar the beauty of your bread. A reading of 200° to 210° F means your bread is done. Amazingly, an instant-read thermometer like the one on my website is about twice as fast to give you the temp as a ‘digital’ one that requires a battery.
Put the loaf on a rack to cool and admire your creation. Try to resist cutting it right away. If you can, wait until it has cooled at least 30 minutes and always use a good sharp serrated knife to slice it. Check out the fabulous aluminum-handled bread knife on my website— they’re the best I’ve ever used and the price is incredibly reasonable for the value.
Once it has cooled, you can pop your beautiful bread into one of the two types of large, long, and heavy plastic bags that you’ll find on my website. One comes with twisty-ties and the other has a zip-top closure. They are 2 mils thick and easily washable and reusable.
After you have baked a few loaves of your own San Francisco Sourdough Bread, you may want to experiment. Feel free to double the recipe or replace some of the white flour with whole wheat or rye. And be sure to add cheese, roasted garlic, or your favorite nuts, grains, herbs or spices just for fun!
Another thing I have tried is using plain all-purpose unbleached flour instead of bread flour. I also use spelt, kamut, semolina and other ancient and exotic flours and whole grains and seeds and my family and I love the results. Be adventuresome and have fun with it!
If I’m not serving or giving my bread within about 12 hours of the time it comes out of the oven, as soon as it is perfectly cool, I wrap it in an air-tight package and freeze it. As long as there’s very little air in the package with your bread, (I wrap mine in plastic wrap before putting into the large heavy plastic bag) you won’t be able to tell the difference when you thaw it and eat it. And yes, you can thaw and re-freeze—homemade SF sourdough bread is amazingly tolerant and has a long shelf-life because it’s naturally resistant to mold and mildew.
If you like, slice it before you freeze it so you can take it out one or two slices at a time, or you can wait until you’re ready to serve. The heavy-duty long ‘bread-shaped’ plastic bags for baguettes and multiple loaves on my website are very affordable and perfect for storing on the counter or in the freezer. Users tell me they love them and reuse them.
Sourdough is STICKY! Be sure to put all your tools in cold water straight away to soak. If you do, cleanup is a breeze later with just a vegetable brush.
If you want bigger holes in your bread, add more water or less flour to make a wetter dough and try using some all-purpose flour in place of part of the high protein bread flour. Longer, slower proofing also helps make larger holes as well.
If you’re making sourdough in your bread machine, be sure to go to the Recipes page on my website and read Joe Wagner’s Sourdough in the Bread Machine Research Project. It’s a fun read, but more important, it’s a fabulous ‘how-to’ for machines. There’s also a recipe page for the basic recipe for San Francisco Sourdough Bread in the Bread Machine.
If you have a problem with your free-form loaves spreading out more than rising up, just understand that this is something that happens to sourdough bread because the acidity of the starter weakens the gluten. Adding more flour to the dough will help. Making the loaves smaller will also help. If you have used A/P flour, substituting all or part with higher protein bread flour will help too. The best way to get the shape you want is to use a bread form, like the Round, Slim Baguette and Oblong Banneton Rising Baskets, the Professional Loaf Pan, the Chicago Metallic Double and Triple Italian or French bread forms—you’ll find all of them on the website.
convert the US-centric measurements in this booklet to metric,
go to this site—it will do all the work for you! http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/conversions.htm.